A nosebleed is when blood flows from the nose. It’s normally caused when tiny blood vessels inside the nostrils are ruptured. Common causes of nosebleeds include being hit in the nose, sneezing, picking or blowing the nose, high blood pressure and anti-clotting medication. What to do:

• When your patient is having a nosebleed, ask them to sit down and lean with their head tilted forward. Do not tell them to lean their head back as this could cause the blood to trickle down the back of their throat and block the airway.

• Ask them to breathe through their mouth and pinch the soft part of their nose. Give them a clean tissue to catch any blood.

• After 10 minutes they can release the pressure on their nose. Ask them to pinch their nose again if the bleeding has not stopped. They should do this for two further periods of 10 minutes.

• Once the bleeding has stopped, ask them to keep leaning forwards while you clean around their nose with lukewarm water. Once clean, advise them to rest, avoid exertion or blowing their nose to prevent disturbing the clots.

• If the bleeding is severe (lasts more than 30 minutes) or the nose is broken (fistfight), call 911 or transport yourself at normal speeds.